‘Koti Banal’ architecture of Uttarakhand is a reflection of indigenous realities and community involvement. It demonstrates a profound. This construction style, designated Koti Banal architecture, attained its zenith around years ago. This architectural style exhibits the existence of elaborate . It is reported that especially buildings of the Koti Banal architecture withstood and performed well during many past damaging earthquakes in.

Author: Natilar Malam
Country: Reunion
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Video
Published (Last): 24 September 2021
Pages: 208
PDF File Size: 17.63 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.74 Mb
ISBN: 896-7-22432-943-6
Downloads: 56406
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Mabei

The vertical elevation of these clude: It is further furnished with large slate tiles Figure The number of lines of walls or frames in each principal direction is greater than or equal to 2. Some engineering aspects of Chamoli earthquake K. The ingenuity of our ancestors lies in the fact that they used wood to create the frame of the structures. The stones between the logs are mostly assembled without any grout or mortar thus enabling a certain level of flexibility and allowing lateral deflections of the building without damage effects.

World Housing Encyclopedia -WHE

First the wooden construction was erected before filling up the intervening voids with dressed stones. More information on this can be found at http: Similar structures are however also present in the valleys of the rivers Sutlej and Tons Figure 2. This architectural style further demonstrates the existence of elaborate construction archigecture based on principles somewhat akin to that of blockhouse construction.

The kitchen is generally on the top floor. However, no strengthening or retrofitting measures could be observed. This further helps in shock resistance. The major reason for this appears to be the unavailability and scarcity of timber.

While the ground floor is used for cattle or grain storage, the upper floors are used as living and bed rooms. Radiocarbon dating of based upon its seismic elements Table 1 These seismogenic forces are sudden, dynamic and can Wi hi2 be of immense intensity. The fact that the structures themselves have stood for a millennium testifies your statement.


In addition, these negative effects are accelerated by the structural deterioration due to the lack of maintenance ioti preservation.

The roof diaphragm is considered to be rigid and it is expected that the roof structure will maintain its integrity, i. The ratio of width to height of these and the soil may produce long-period motion. The design seismic base shear force for the Koti Banal Figure 6.

In a report on the effects of the Kangra earthquake M 7. In architedture lower parts of the walls the timber logs are interconnected establishing a very solid cribbage while the timber elements on the upper parts are mainly of a reinforcing purpose. The walls are raised by placing double wooden logs horizontally on the edge of the two parallel sides architedture the platform. Molnar Science This structure however digresses and construction elements method from seismic safety norms and does not provide for shear Traditional Shrine, temple, Arcgitecture, wall Not applied or walls.

This especially in the lower parts of the walls where the wooden frame is continuous in three dimensions and the stones do not carry any loads. Seismic performance of these structures has been tested by the Kumaun earthquake of and Garhwal earthquake ofthat are considered to be highly dam- aging.

Archltecture is supposed that several tens of workers had been required to build these structures. A modified type of Koti Banal architecture can be found in Gona village where the principles of Koti banal architecture were not strictly followed.

Obviously the erection of these structures had been a community effort. The description is prepared from a number of standard closed-ended questions and some narrative that have been provided by report authors.

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

In case of outcropping rock at the surface, the platform out of dry stone masonry is directly erected onto ground without any embedded foundation Figure 7. Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: This minimizes the overturning effect of the par- beams are characteristic of the Rajgari area.


The design lateral force obtained at each the masses are located. The significant features of practices for ensuring survival against all odds.

However, buildings of comparable type denoted as ‘cribbage’ or ‘timber reinforced stone masonry’ are known over the whole northern part of the Indian subcontinent including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and perhaps Nepal and Bhutan. Himalayan Seismic Hazard R.

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

This suggests common occurrence of multi- recognized as seismic gaps that are interpreted to have storied structures in the region. The balconies are supported by cantilevering wooden logs of the flooring system Figure 6. The inertial pushed to their ultimate capacity, tend to yield only forces generated by the ground movement of the earth- gradually while continuing to carry hanal loads.

The Kangra earthquake of 4 April Middlemiss, C. These walls and floors maintain high building response to an earthquake depends on the size of stiffness and strength in the design range, and if the building and its stiffness characteristics. The structure is further reinforced with the help of wooden beams fixed alternately, that run from the middle of the walls on one side to the other, intersecting at the centre.

According to Middlemiss it is this projecting balcony which gives the house the false appearance of being top-heavy and unstable.

Back to top